But the razor-thin 60-59 vote of confidence in a coalition of left-wing, centrist, right-wing and Arab parties with little in common except for a desire to unseat Netanyahu, only underscored its likely fragility.
Hundreds also attended a support rally outside the official residence of Netanyahu in Jerusalem.
"We are so excited, we are close to get heart attacks from excitement," one supporter of Israel's new government, Batya Aviram, said. "We understood the danger of [Netanyahu] to continue to control our democracy as a dictatorship."
The new government, formed after an inconclusive March 23 election, plans largely to avoid sweeping moves on hot-button international issues such as policy toward the Palestinians, and to focus on domestic reforms.