FRANKFURT (Reuters) - FiatChrysler's late Chief Executive Sergio Marchionne argued for deeper auto industry consolidation in an April 2015 presentation which said 50 percent of carmakers' research and development investments were being wasted on duplicate efforts.
The auto industry is wary of risky takeover deals but Marchionne's focus on return on capital has prompted carmakers to seek new ways to save on manufacturing and research costs through arms-length alliances, some of which are listed below.
October 2018 - Volkswagen says it is open to deeper alliances particularly in the area of autonomous driving and could envisage sharing its electric vehicles platform with Ford.
October 2018 - Honda Motor Co says it will invest $2.75 billion euros and take a 5.7 percent stake in General Motors Co's Cruise self-driving unit.
June 2018 - Ford Motor and Volkswagen AG confirm an alliance in the area of commercial vehicles. The companies say they have no plans for an equity swap or cross-ownership structure as part of the deal, but are exploring other areas of cooperation.
February 2018 - Geely's chairman Li Shufu reveals he has bought a 9.69 percent stake in Mercedes-Benz parent Daimler, worth around $9 billion.
January 10, 2018 - Mazda and Toyota announce they will open a $1.6 billion joint-venture car factory in Huntsville, Alabama, in 2021. Toyota takes a 5 percent stake in Mazda as part of the deal.
August 1, 2017 - General Motors sells its European brands Opel and Vauxhall to France's PSA Group for 2.2 billion euros in a landmark deal which sees GM abandoning volume sales as its performance benchmark.
May 2016 - Nissan Motor. Co buys a 34 percent stake in Mitsubishi Motors, handing it de facto control over the carmaker in a $2.2 billion deal.
January 2016 - Toyota Motor Corp, which already owned 51.2 percent of Japanese rival Daihatsu, buys the remaining stake in an all stock deal worth $3 billion.
September 2015 - FiatChrysler CEO Marchionne emails General Motors chief executive Mary Barra asking her to explore a combination of the two carmakers and is rebuffed.
April 2015 - The French state increases its Renault stake to 19.74 percent from 15 percent in a deal designed to block efforts by Nissan to increase its influence over Renault. The deal is orchestrated by economy minister -- and now French president -- Emmanuel Macron.
January 2014 - Fiat, under Marchionne's leadership, tightens its grip on Chrysler Group LLC by buying the 41.46 percent stake it did not already own in a $4.35 billion deal.
July 2012 - Volkswagen AG takes full control of Porsche AG, integrating it into its multi-brand empire.
April 2010 - Renault-Nissan boss Carlos Ghosn and Daimler CEO Dieter Zetsche unveil an arms-length cooperation alliance including mutual cross-shareholdings of around 3 percent. In 2014, this is extended to sharing vehicle platforms and a factory in Aguascalientes, Mexico, between Nissan's Infiniti brand and Mercedes-Benz.
March 2010 - China's Zhejiang Geely Holding Group buys Volvo cars from Ford Motor Co. for $1.8 billion.
December 2009 - Renault and Daimler start talks about an alliance.
December 2009 - Porsche's derivatives portfolio unravels in the financial crisis, requiring billions in refinancing. Porsche turns to VW and Qatar for help. Volkswagen buys a 49.9 percent stake in Porsche's sportscar business for 3.9 billion euros.
June 2009 - General Motors files for bankruptcy protection.
April 2009 - France pledges 3 billion euro loans for both Renault and its competitor PSA Peugeot Citroen.
April 2009 - Chrysler files for bankruptcy protection.
January 2009 - Porsche says it has ammassed a 50.8 percent stake in Volkswagen through derivatives contracts.
2008 - India's Tata buys Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Co for $2.3 billion.
2007 - Daimler sells an 80 percent stake in Chrysler to private equity firm Cerberus for 5.5 billion euros, arguing that unwinding the merger is the best way to create "the greatest overall value -- both for Daimler and Chrysler".
October 2005 - Porsche buys an 18.5 percent stake in Volkswagen AG.
March 2000 - Ford buys Land Rover from BMW for $2.7 billion.
March 2000 - BMW AG sells Rover Cars to the Phoenix consortium for 10 pounds after concluding that the brand is "not strong enough to perform the tasks intended for it." BMW retains ownership of Mini.
March 1999 - Renault and Nissan sign an alliance which results in Renault holding a 44.4 percent stake in Nissan, while Nissan owns 15 percent of Renault's shares.
January 1999 - Ford Motor Co. buys Sweden's Volvo cars for $6.45 billion.
September 1998 - Volkswagen's unit Audi buys Italian sportscar brand Automobili Lamborghini SpA.
July 1998 - Volkswagen buys Bentley Motor Ltd. and Bugatti Automobiles S.A.
May 1998 - Daimler-Benz buys Chrysler Corp. for $36 billion in a deal promising at least $1 billion in synergies within a year.
January 1994 - BMW AG buys Britain's Rover Group for 800 million pounds.
1991 - Volkswagen and Ford start a joint venture in Portugal to build a family van. Ford sells out of the venture the same year.
December 1990 - The Czech government allows Volkswagen AG to buy local carmaker Skoda.
June 1986 - Volkswagen AG buys a 51 percent stake in Spanish brand Seat.
(Reporting by Edward Taylor; Editing by Catherine Evans)