Usually, we don t notice subtle differences in playing cards. Sure, one deck of cards may differ a bit from another, depending on design. But often, the spade’s sign on the ace of spades will be larger and more ornate than the corresponding signs on the aces of hearts, diamonds or clubs. There is a historical reason. Card manufacturers had to pay taxes and stamp duties were extended to playing cards in 1711 (in England). You needed a stamp to prove duties had been paid and that stamp would naturally be on the first card of the deck, which was the ace of spades. However, stamping every deck became a nuisance. Hence, the ace of spades bore the insignia of the printing house, proof that taxes had been paid. The consequent larger ace became a legacy that till now often continues. Ditto with the four kings.
In standard English playing cards, the two black kings wield swords. The king of diamonds has a battle-axe, while the king of hearts has a sword he seems to be using to slice off his own head, unlike the black kings. In addition, the king of hearts doesn t sport a moustache, while the other three kings do. Why should discrimination exist? I don t think anyone knows definitively. There are theories. A standard answer is copying from original French versions and the disfiguring and distorting when block-makers changed symbols of office. In French versions, all kings have moustaches.
In fact, there are endless styles of mustachios, all appropriate to the wearers and indicative of the various orders, as rigorously adhered to as if they had all been patented by the Government of India or had been sanctioned by special appointment with His Majesty, the King, or Her Majesty, the Queen . This is from Mulk Raj Anand s A Pair of Mustachios, written in pre-Independent India. In Independent India, what are rules for the armed forces? I am asking about whiskers/moustaches, not beards.
For beards, there are indeed some prohibitions and special exemptions. Do remember that before fighting the Persians, Alexander the Great had his soldiers shave off their beards. Because of Abhinandan Varthaman, if not otherwise, everyone knows moustaches are allowed in armed forces. Indeed, between 1860 and 1916, moustaches were compulsory in the British Army and that also applied to British India, starting earlier with the East India Company. These rules changed in October 2016 and World War I was the reason. If you had to wear a gas mask, a moustache was a problem. Henry VIII taxed beards and so did Peter the Great in Russia. I don t think Henry VIII s tax applied to moustaches, but the Peter tax seems to have covered both beards and moustaches.
A tax is a disincentive. There is no prohibition against, or compulsion for, moustaches in the Indian army today, nor is there a tax on moustaches. But neither is there an incentive in the form of a moustache allowance. However, like discrimination between kings in playing card decks, there is discrimination between armed forces and police when it comes to moustache allowances. Here is a quote from 1943 police regulations. Officers and men shall always be neat and clean in person and dress both in and out of uniform. Their hair shall always be closely cut.
Those who shave shall always be clean-shaved. Moustaches may be worn though beards are shaved. Sikhs and Punjabi Muslims who are in the habit of growing long hair and beards are permitted to do so . No bar, but there can be a positive incentive through a moustache allowance. I don t mean a moustache allowance specific to an individual. For instance, Bengaluru traffic police now have Meesey Thimmaiah as an official mascot. He was known as Meesey because of his distinctive and ornate moustache and he died on duty, trying to save a woman and her child from being run over. While he was alive, Meesey Thimmaiah got an annual moustache allowance of Rs500. This was an allowance specific to him, not across the board.
Across the board, I know of only two states where policemen get a moustache allowance Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In Madhya Pradesh, it only seems to be for some districts, not all, and is Rs33 per month. In UP, the targeting of moustache allowance isn t district-wise. Policemen get it everywhere, but only if they belong to Uttar Pradesh Provincial (Pradeshik) Armed Constabulary (PAC), not otherwise. The amount has recently been hiked from Rs50 per month to Rs250.
I don t think there is any correlation between popularity of Chulbul Pandey or Singham and absence, or presence, of moustache allowances in different states. In a government system, the answer often lies in precedence. For the Indian Police Service, something like this is governed by Indian Police Service (Uniform) Rules of 1954. For a state, it will be the respective state rules on uniforms, such as the 1986 rules for UP, or corresponding uniform rules for PAC. Differences between rates are thus inevitable. In the army, there was a movement away from beards and moustaches, though those who wanted to sport these could do so. That is what happened in the police, too, and you see this reflected in UP s 1986 uniform rules. However, because of historical preferences and legacies, traces of moustache preference and mooch allowances remain in PAC uniform rules. Evidently, UP s 1986 Police Service (Uniform) Rules will soon be amended. But probably not those for PAC. Others are kings of hearts.
(The author is Chairman, economic advisory council to the PM Views are personal)